The Date of human civilization in this district reaches far back to the stone ages. The existence of prehistoric culture in Salem is evident from the discovery of Paleolithic and Neolithic stone implements and dung ash heaps in and around Salem. A concise chronology of the district is presented.

3rd Century B.C. The period of Bogar – a notable Tamil Siddhar.

Arrival of Buddhism and Jainism in Salem.

1st Century A.D. Around the beginning of the Christian era, the existence of a culturally and economically advanced society in Salem two thousand years ago is evident from the discovery of silver coins of the Roman Emperor Tiberices Claudices Nero (37-68) in Koneripatti of Salem in 1987.
2nd Century A.D. Pandiyan dynasty rules Salem.

Pandiyan Nedunchezhiyan Kanaikal Irumporai rules KolliMalai.

4th Century A.D. Rise of Pallava dynasty in Salem.
6th Century A.D. Period of MahendraVarmaPallva.
Rise of Saivite principles.
7th Century A.D. Weakening of Buddhism & Jainism.
Period of NarasimhaVarmaPallava.
8th Century A.D. Pandiyan dynasty in Salem.
9th Century A.D. Rise of Saivasamayam and fading away of Jainism and Buddhism.
Rise of Pallava.
10th Century A.D. Rise of Chozha dynasty and decline of Pallavas.
11th Century A.D. Chozha rule.
12th Century A.D. Rise of Hoysala rule in parts of Salem.
13th Century AD. Hoysala rule established; Parts of Salem remained under Pandiyan dynasty.
14th Century A.D. 1310 Malikkafur goes through Salem.
1368- Salem under Vijaya Nagar Empire
15th Century A .D. The Chalukya rule.
Rise of Palyakarars.
16th Century A.D. Rule of Madurai Nayakars.
Rule of Emperor Krishnadheva Raya in part of Salem including Attur.
17th Century A.D. Rise of local chieftains Gatti and Nayakas.
Palayakara rule.
18thCentury A.D. Rule of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan.
Taking over by British.
1772 – First Collector to Salem.

19th Century A.D :

1856 New Revenue survey under taken ;
Settlement department established.
End of company rule and
Taking over by British Crown.
1860 Salem city as capital of District
1862 Salem Central Jail built.
1866-67 Severe famine. (A series of famines and epidemics)
1875 Cholera epidemic rages.
1876-78 The Great famine
1891-92 Another famine.
1896-97 Last famine of the century.

20th Century:

Developmental activities in Salem like constructing railways and Ghat roads and construction of Mettur dam.

1947 – Salem is an independent part of Free India.

1951 – Exchange of villages between Mysore and Madras State took place under the provinces and states (Absorption of Enclaves) order 1950.

1961- SankariTaluk was formed from TiruchengodeTaluk.

1965- Salem district was bifurcated into Salem – Dharmapuri districts(2-Oct-1965)

Salem constituted 8 Taluks – Salem ,Attur, Yercaud, Omalur ,Sankari, Tiruchengode, Rasipuram and Namakkal.
Dharmapuri constituted 4 Taluks – Hosur, Krishnagiri ,Harur and Dharmapuri.

1966- MetturTaluk was formed from OmalurTaluk and Salem constituted Nine taluks.

1989 – ParamathiVelurTaluk was newly formed.

1997 – Salem District was bifurcated into Salem and Namakkal district (2-Feb-1997). Salem constituted 8 Taluks – Salem, Yercaud, Attur, Omalur, Mettur, Sankari, Gangavalli, and Idappadi and Namakkal district constituted 4 Taluks – Namakkal, Tiruchengode, Rasipuram and Paramathi-Velur

1998 – Attur Division was newly formed and a new TalukValappadi was formed. Salem attained its present administrative set-up.

Dec-2013 – Salem Taluk was divided into three taluks namely , Salem, Salem West and Salem South Taluks

Jan-2015 – Attur Taluk was divided into two taluks namely Attur & Pethanaickenpalayam

Jan-2016 – Omalur Taluk was Divided into two taluks namely Omalur & Kadayampatti

February-2021 – Thalaivasal Taluk was formed from grouping some villages form Attur and Gangavalli Taluks

Salem attained its present administrative set-up.
Revenue Administrative set-up of Salem.

Sl. No Revenue Sub Division Taluks
1. Salem Salem, Salem West, Salem South,Valappadi, Yercaud
2. Attur Attur, Gangavalli, Pethanaickenpalayam, Thalaivasal
3. Mettur Mettur, Omalur, Kadayampatti
4. Sankari Sankari, Idappadi